The hottest top leaders talk about the printing in

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Editor's note: at the end of November 2001, at the third Standing Council of the fourth session of the China printing and equipment industry association, Li Shouren, chairman of the association, Lin Zongtang, President of the China Federation of industrial economics, Li Lu, director of the printing division of the printing industry management department of the General Administration of publishing, Li Junyuan, deputy director of the policy and foreign investment division of the investment and Planning Department of the State Economic and Trade Commission, and other leaders discussed the issue of China's entry into the WTO, The new situation faced by the printing and equipment industry and its countermeasures made a insightful speech, which is excerpted as follows for readers' research and reference

the situation and Prospect of China's printing industry after its entry into WTO

China's formal entry into WTO is imminent. I would like to make some comments on the situation and development prospect of China's printing and equipment industry

I. the situation faced by China's printing and equipment industry

China's printing equipment industry as a whole is facing four new situations

(I) facing the new situation of market internationalization and more intense market competition after China's entry into WTO. Compact structure and high efficiency

after joining the WTO, while enjoying the multilateral trading system, we must also undertake corresponding obligations and. First of all, tariff concessions have a greater impact on the printing and equipment industry. In the past, China exempted the import tariff and import value-added tax of lithographic offset printing machines with a printing speed of 15000 pieces/hour and 60000 pieces/hour wheel transfer printing machines. In fact, the import tariff of printing machines is very low. After joining the WTO, due to the tightening of the tax reduction and exemption policy, although the tariff rate is reduced, the actual average tax rate will not be reduced, and may even be higher than the actual average tariff when the tax reduction and exemption policy is implemented, which will have a certain impact on the import of advanced equipment by printing enterprises. For the printing machine industry, the reduction of import tariffs will help printing machine enterprises import advanced supporting equipment from abroad

secondly, trade-related investment rules also have a great impact on the printing industry. Due to the relaxation of investment restrictions, foreign enterprises will increase their investment in China in the adjustment of international industrial structure. According to the new "Regulations on the administration of printing industry", Sino foreign joint ventures in printing enterprises are allowed, and foreign capital can engage in packaging and decoration printing business activities. Therefore, the market competition in the printing industry will become more intense. In the past, foreign printing machine enterprises have not made major breakthroughs in domestic investment, especially in the investment and cooperation of high-end products. Due to the attraction of the prospects of China's printing market, large foreign printing machine enterprises will be interested in China's investment and joint venture production. For Chinese printing machine enterprises, it is not only a new opportunity to cooperate with foreign enterprises to introduce technology, but also faces more fierce market competition

the third is the principle of most favored nation treatment and national treatment. After joining the WTO, it will create a good environment of equal competition for the export of China's printing and equipment enterprises, which is conducive to expanding exports. As the implementation of the principle of policy transparency will create a more conducive environment for equal competition by small and medium-sized enterprises, development will be accelerated

fourth, we should study the corresponding measures for China's entry into WTO, make full use of the five-year transition period, and improve the competitiveness of industries and enterprises. Enterprises should deepen reform, speed up the establishment of modern enterprise system, speed up structural adjustment, strengthen new product development, strengthen management, improve quality and improve market competitiveness

(II) print media is facing the challenges of electronic media, the rapid development of new technologies and the new situation of promotion and application

1. In the information age, with the rapid development of electronic media and Internet, the traditional print media is facing the challenge of electronic media on the one hand, and the rapid development of printing technology on the other hand. Such as digital technology, network technology, integrated automation technology, digital printing process and integrated management technology, as well as new printing processes, diversification of equipment and equipment, printing environmental protection technology, etc

in the era of multimedia, the traditional print media is fiercely challenged by electronic media. With the rapid growth of electronic media, the share of print media continues to decrease, but the total volume is also growing. Take the advertising industry with the greatest impact of electronic media as an example. In 1989, the total advertising revenue of various media in the United States was about $130billion, of which newspapers and magazines totaled about $45billion, accounting for about 30%. It is estimated that by 2004, the total revenue of Guangji industry will reach 300billion US dollars, an increase of 150%; Among them, Guangji's revenue of print media was nearly $100billion, an increase of about 100%. It can be seen from the above data that in the multimedia era, the proportion of traditional print media is decreasing, but its total volume will still grow at a high rate with economic growth

2. The share of lithography and gravure printing is declining, and digital printing is growing rapidly. According to relevant information, the share of various printing processes in the total printing volume in the United States is still dominated by lithography, but the proportion is declining, from 50% in 1997 to about 35% in 2010-2015; Flexographic printing is basically stable at about 20%; Concave is 16%, which will decrease in the future, and it is expected to be 11% from 2010 to 2015; Silk printing and others are basically stable at 5%; Embossing now accounts for 4% - 5%, and it is expected to drop to 1% by 2010-2015; Digital printing will continue to grow, from 4% in 1997 to 29% in 2010-2015. In lithography, the proportion of conventional lithography will continue to decline, from 50% in 1997 to 20% from 2010 to 2015; Direct plate making (DI) will continue to rise, from 1% in 1999 to 11% to 15% from 2010 to 2015

p technology drives the adjustment of the technical structure of the printing industry. American scholars said: the American printing industry is facing a huge international printing market. The economic downturn, market changes, printing technology progress, and new media competition make all parts of the American printing industry in restructuring and structural adjustment. In the adjustment, plate making technology develops in parallel in two directions: one is to adopt digital plate making, and the other is to improve traditional plate making. CTP technology drives the structural adjustment and reorganization of printing

there are about 19000 CTP plate making systems in the world, including about 3000 ~ 3500 in the United States, most of which are concentrated in Europe. In foreign countries, the number of digital color printing equipment has increased rapidly

in the United States, direct imaging Di, namely direct image or direct to plate press, first appeared in 1991, and variable date digital printing engines (VDP) appeared in 1993. The number of enterprises using digital printing equipment Di and VDP and the number of printing machines in the United States, according to the research prediction of NPES, from 1998 to 2002, the number of enterprises using variable data digital printing in the United States increased by 350%, and the number of VDP printing machines increased by 375%; The number of enterprises using direct imaging printers increased by 360%, and the number of Di printers increased by 560%. The enterprises using Di and VDP are mainly those engaged in short edition and fast printing with local and regional services, while the proportion of enterprises mainly engaged in mass printing with national and international market services is very low

Over the past 20 years, China's printing technology has undergone revolutionary changes, but with the rapid progress of printing technology, the gap between China's printing and equipment industry and the international advanced level has widened, and China's printing industry will face the new demand for the use of advanced high-tech printing technology. In order to meet the new needs of the development of China's printing industry, the China printing and equipment industry association, on the basis of organizing research, has put forward the "28 word" policy for the development of China's printing and equipment industry in the early 10-15 years of this century, that is, "prepress digital and networking; printing multicolor and efficient; post press diversity and automation; equipment high quality and serialization". This is in line with the development direction of international printing technology and the actual needs of the development of printing technology in China, and has reached a broad consensus in the industry. In order to achieve this goal, we are currently studying measures to bring China's printing technology to a new level in the new century

(III) China's printing and equipment industry is facing a new situation of structural adjustment and reorganization

1. Structural adjustment of Chinese printing enterprises

the structural adjustment of Chinese printing enterprises is mainly reflected in: first, due to the progress of printing technology and process, especially due to the elimination of type, the application of new technology of color printing and post press processing, the internal organizational structure of enterprises has changed; Due to the technology of prepress process, the market price of leverage is about 90000 yuan. With the progress of technology and the popularity of public digital communication, users and printers intersect in the division of labor of prepress process. Part of the work originally undertaken by printers is completed by users themselves; Due to the application of digital printing technology, it will inevitably cause greater changes in the internal structure of printing enterprises. Second, due to the changes in the service field of the printing industry, the enterprise structure of the printing industry has changed. In the past, the main service object of the printing industry was the printing of books and newspapers. With the development of market economy, the service field of the printing industry has expanded greatly. Packaging printing, rapid printing and special printing have sprung up, and have become an important pillar and new growth point of the printing industry. In the United States, the printing industry is classified in detail, and commercial printing occupies an absolutely dominant position. The total output value of the printing industry in the United States in 2000 was US $163 billion. In 2000, the proportion of all kinds of prints in lithographic prints was 24.6% for general commercial products, 13.6% for advertisements, 8% for magazines and weekly magazines, 8.6% for books, 5.9% for samples, 10.2% for direct mail, 2.6% for directories, 4.1% for financial & Legal bonds, 1.5% for labels, and 7% for various commercial copy forms, Special printing accounted for 13.9%. It is not difficult to see that among the lithographic prints, commercial prints account for the vast majority of the share, and mines, automobiles, books, magazines, etc. account for only 16.6%. In the United States, 70% of packaging printing adopts flexographic printing, and there are 7000 flexographic printing production lines in the United States. The share of flexographic printing in the U.S. packaging printing market is basically stable at 70%. From the perspective of the proportion of various print markets in the United States, China's commercial printing and packaging printing will have a greater development in the future. Although the proportion of books, periodicals and newspapers in the print market will be further reduced, the absolute volume will continue to increase significantly. With the diversification of the printing market, the service field of a printing enterprise, especially the service field of large and medium-sized printing enterprises, will also be broadened and diversified. Third, in the past, China's printing enterprises were large-scale, but the degree of production specialization was low. In addition to the high degree of specialization of gravure plate making enterprises, the proportion of general professional plate making was very low. With the change of ownership structure of printing enterprises and the emergence of a large number of small and individual printing enterprises mainly serving local and regional services, there is a demand for professional production such as prepress plate making, proofing and post press processing

2. Structural adjustment of printing equipment manufacturing enterprises

the level of China's printing equipment manufacturing enterprises has been greatly improved in the past 20 years, and the variety of products has increased significantly, but the industrial structure and enterprise structure are unreasonable, and the problems are very prominent. The development and innovation ability of enterprises' new products is low, and the products between enterprises are similar. The low level is repeated, especially 60% - 70% of the domestic market of high-end printing equipment is occupied by foreign products. In recent years, some famous foreign printing equipment manufacturing companies, through mergers, alliances and reorganization, on the one hand, horizontally expand their service areas and make their products

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